PAU: Progressive farmers, time to apply for awards

The progressive farmers of Punjab will be honoured during the PAU Kisan Mela in March 2020 for their excellenc…Read MoreThe directorate of extension education of Punjab Agricultural University (PAU), Ludhiana has invited applications from the farmers of the state for the ‘Innovative Farmer Awards 2020’. The progressive farmers of Punjab will be honoured during the PAU Kisan Mela in March 2020 for their excellence in agriculture, horticulture and allied occupations.
PAU director of extension education J S Mahal said the Chief Minister Award in Agriculture, carrying a cash prize of Rs 25,000 along with a plaque and citation will be conferred on the self-cultivating farmer of field crops in Punjab. The Chief Minister Award in Horticulture, carrying cash prize of Rs 25,000 along with a plaque and citation, will be awarded to the self-cultivating farmer of horticultural crops, he added. Mahal informed that three ‘CRI Pumps Awards,’ each carrying a cash prize of Rs 10,000 along with a plaque and citation, will be presented to the self-cultivating farmer for adopting improved water management technologies, farm mechanisation and organic farming, respectively.

He said Sardarni Parkash Kaur Sra Memorial Award, carrying cash prize of Rs 5,000 along with a plaque and citation, would be given to the self-cultivating progressive farmer/ farm woman in agriculture/horticulture/floriculture and allied agriculture enterprises. Mahal said the application forms are available with the associate/deputy directors (training) of Krishi Vigyan Kendras, directors of regional stations, district extension specialists (senior most), chief agriculture officers, deputy directors of horticulture in different districts of the state and directorate of extension education, PAU. The last date for the receipt of applications in the office of PAU director of extension education is January 10, 2020, he said. For each award, a separate application will be accepted, he added.

Uttar Pradesh govt aims to support 75 MW farmland solar plants in 2019-20

Under KUSUM scheme, the state government will help farmers in setting up an aggregate 75 MW capacity of grid-connected solar plants—in capacities of up to 2 MW—on their barren or cultivable land.

The state of Uttar Pradesh has so far distributed 25,511 solar pumps for irrigation.

Under  Kisan Urja Suraksha Evam Utthan Mahaabhiyan (KUSUM) rural solar scheme, farmers and agricultural collectives can set up decentralized, ground mounted, grid-connected solar power plants of up to 2 MW capacity on barren or cultivable land. The power generated will be purchased by the DISCOMs at feed-in tariffs determined by the respective State Electricity Regulatory Commission, thus opening a stable and continuous source of income to the rural landowners.

“[Under the scheme] the state government of Uttar Pradesh will help in setting up such solar plants with a total capacity of 75 MW in the current year. The government will buy this electricity at a reasonable rate, thus directly benefiting the farmers,” said UP power minister Shrikant Sharma.

Further, the state government will support solarization of existing private tubewells.

“Subsidy will be provided to farmers for conversion of existing private tubewells into grid connected solar pumpsets, eliminating the farmer’s dependence on electricity for irrigation, said the minister.

“Farmers usually irrigate for 150-185 days. Other days the panel-generated power will go to the grid”—he added.

The state, which has set a target of 10,700 MW solar power generation by the year 2022, has so far distributed 25,511 solar pumps for irrigation. Further, a total of 2727 solar-powered RO plants for clean water in schools, and 2,70,000 solar streetlights have been installed in the state, according to the minister.

KUSUM Scheme

Through the KUSUM scheme, the Indian government aims to add renewable capacity of 25.75 GW by 2022 by promoting the installation of 10 GW worth of decentralized, ground mounted, grid-connected renewable power plants as well as the deployment of 17.5 lakh standalone solar-powered agriculture pumps (with a capacity of up to 7.5 hp each). The plan also includes solarization of 10 lakh of grid-connected pumps of the same size. A PV capacity of up to twice the pump capacity in kilowatts is allowed under the scheme.

source: PV-magazine
Link:https://www.pv-magazine-india.com/2019/12/16/up-govt-aims-to-support-75-mw-farmland-solar-plants-in-2019-20/

In-Depth | When onion made India cry: How onion price rise affects politics, business and the common man

The price of onion has been hovering above Rs 100 per kilogram for over a month leaving the entire nation wailing. Skyrocketed prices of this key kitchen staple has not only left households teary-eyed but traders, wholesalers, and farmers have also been equally affected as people are beginning to cut back using the costly bulb.

Scores of small restaurants are also feeling the pinch as rising prices of onion is taking a hit on their business. While some restaurants are opting to pass on the burden to customers, many others are mulling over reducing the usage of onion until the situation stabilises.

The power of the bulb, which is an essential utility item for the rich as it is for the poor, can be seen in ways that it is tempting thieves, destroying livelihoods and putting a question mark on the policies of the Prime Minister Narendra Modi-led government.

Even as the Centre is taking steps to tackle the onion crisis, the Opposition is leaving no opportunity to target the government over the exponential spike in onion prices.

The primary reason that the Centre should be jittery is because onion prices have had the potential to topple governments in the past.

What has led to the rise in onion prices?

The sudden rise in the price of this ubiquitous kitchen item has been officially attributed to a decline in domestic production during kharif (harvested after October) and late-kharif (harvested in January- March) seasons because of late monsoon followed by excess rains in major producing states such as Maharashtra and Karnataka.

There is a shortfall in production by over 15.8 lakh tonnes this year, as per the data provided by Agriculture Minister Narendra Singh Tomar in Lok Sabha. According to the minister, states had estimated production of onion to be over 69.9 lakh tonnes by November 30 in this season, but the actual production is likely to be 53.67 lakh tonnes.

Also, the kharif acreage has dipped from 2.97 lakh hectares in 2018-19 to 2.58 lakh hectares in 2019, according to a report by The Indian Express citing Agriculture ministry data.

The heavy unseasonal rainfall which lashed Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat in September also contributed to the price rise as it damaged the ready crop in these states.

What is the average rate of onion prevailing in the country?

The price of this kitchen essential has been rising steadily in the country. It started to climb from September and has averaged over Rs 100 per kg since November 25.

Since then, the price has hovered over the Rs 100 per kg mark in most states. The rates are as high as Rs 165/kg in Panaji (Goa).

As per official data, onion prices are ruling at Rs 96 per kg in the national capital, Rs 102 per kg in Mumbai, Rs 100 in Chennai and Rs 140 per kg in Kolkata.

Onion is being sold at Rs 160 per kg in Thiruvananthapuram, Kozhikode, Mayabunder, and at Rs 150 per kg in Tirupati, Ernakulam, Thrissur and Palakkad.

In Bengaluru, Wayanad, Ramanathapuram and Port Blair, the rates stood at Rs 140 per kg.

Onion prices prevailed at Rs 120 per kg in Gurugram, Jagdalpur, Behrampur, Purulia, Maldah, Itanagar, Agartala, Puducherry, Dindigul, Tirunelveli and Dharmapuri.

In Amritsar, Surat, Jabalpur, Darbhanga, Sambalpur, Balasore and Gangtok, onion prices were Rs 110 per kg.

Onion rates are Rs 100 per kg in Chandigarh, Shimla, Mandi, Srinagar, Jammu, Ludhiana, Gorakhpur, Haridwar, Ahmedabad, Patna, Cuttack, Jeypore, Kharagpur, Raiganj, Shillong and Tiruchirappalli.

Why does the onion matter so much?

Onion is a staple in kitchen and an essential ingredient in most cuisines. Therefore, an increase in the price of the bulb affects a large section of the society including farmers, traders, wholesalers and households.

The price rise has also adversely affected the business of street-side food vendors and small restaurants.

Bitan Mukherjee, co-owner of a retro-themed cafe in Kolkata told PTI that the skyrocketing prices of onions were affecting the profit margin in the restaurant, adding that he would be compelled to increase the rate of items if the situation does not stabilise.

In talks with the news agency, Promod Jha, a jhalmuri seller in central Kolkata, said he was forced to replace onion with a generous amount of chillies and black pepper. “I used to buy 4-5 kg of onion every day. Now, I can’t afford. Hopefully, my customers will understand my situation,” he added.

The importance of the vegetable is also being seen in unexpected ways; the rise in its price is tempting thievery. The police has registered cases for missing onions, launched probes, arrested people and recovered the bulb from them.

In one such incident, cops arrested two persons for allegedly stealing 168 kgs of onion worth Rs 20,160 in south Mumbai. Yet they could recover only 68 kgs of onions from the duo.

A case has also been registered against Union Minister of Consumer Affairs Ram Vilas Pawan for “misleading and cheating” people on the rise in the price of onion. It was filed by a person named M Raju Nayyar in Muzaffarpur Civil Court who said that Paswan misled people through his statement that the price of the vegetable has gone up due to its black marketing.The crisis has given an opportunity to social media users, who have let out a barrage of memes. From targetting the government to pointing out problems of the common man, people have flooded social media platforms with posts about the rising unaffordability of the essential food item.

Source: Moneycontrol
Link:https://www.moneycontrol.com/news/india/in-depth-when-onion-made-india-cry-how-onion-price-rise-affects-politics-business-and-the-common-man-4726281.html

10 reasons why farmers are in distress

NEW DELHI: When the poll results came in on Tuesday, one thing was clear: BJP had taken a hit in rural areas. And this despite the Centre allocating large sums for several schemes to boost farmer incomes. So what went wrong? TOI takes a look at the stress points hurting the sector.
1. Two years of drought

Two successive years of drought (2014, 2015) have taken a toll on the farm sector. The government has allocated significant funds for the sector but slow implementation of projects has not eased the pain. Drought in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Karnataka have also added to farmers’ woes.
2. Collapsing farm prices

EXPLORE BRIEFSMore central teams for 10 states that have witnessed or are witnessing high Covid-19 cases: Health ministryThe health ministry has decided to deploy central teams in 10 states that have witnessed or are witnessing high Covid-19 cases to assist their health departments to facilitate management of the outbreak. These are besides the 20 central teams of public health experts sent earlier to 20 high case load districts on May 3.Not anticipating worst situation in India: Harsh Vardhan on Covid-19 pandemicUnion health minister Harsh Vardhan on Saturday said that he does not anticipate a “very worst type of situation” in India like in many developed countries due to Covid-19 pandemic, but the government is prepared. Vardhan said the doubling time of coronavirus cases in the country for the last 3 days has been about 11 days & 9.9 days for the last 7 days.Prices have collapsed for farm commodities. Low international prices have meant exports have been hit while imports have hurt prices at home. For example, there was a bumper production of pulses in 2016-17 but imports of nearly 6.6 million tonnes arrived, compounding the problem. In 2017-18, another 5.6 million tonnes flowed in, depressing domestic prices further. The government delayed imposing tariffs on imports, which heightened the problem of prices for farmers. According to a Niti Aayog paper, on average, farmers do not realise remunerative prices due to limited reach of the minimum support prices (MSP) and an agricultural marketing system that delivers only a small fraction of the final price to the actual farmer.

3. Insurance fails to serve
The Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana was launched in 2016 to provide insurance and financial support to farmers in the event of failure of any crops due to natural calamities, pests and diseases. It was also meant to stabilise the income of farmers and ensure they remain in farming. But the scheme has seen lower enrolments due to a string of factors, including high premiums and lack of innovation by insurance firms.
4. Irrigation takes a hit
Irrigation is crucial for the farm sector, where large tracts of land still depend on monsoon rains. The Centre launched the Rs 40,000-crore Long-Term Irrigation Fund, operated by the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (Nabard). Under this programme, 99 large irrigation projects were to be completed by December 2019 but the progress so far has been limited. Experts say a number of factors, including bureaucratic delays and slow implementation by states, have hurt progress for this crucial input.
5. Marketing is ignored
According to a Niti Aayog document, farm sector development has ignored the potential of marketing. Archaic laws still hobble the sector. Access of farmers to well-developed markets remains an issue although several initiatives have been launched to develop an electronic market place. Reforms to the APMC Act have been slow and most states have dragged their feet on it. Experts suggest an entity such as the GST Council to bring together states and the Centre to jointly take decisions to reform the sector and provide better access to markets for farmers. According to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the combination of market regulations and infrastructure deficiencies leads to a price depressing effect on the sector.
6. Modern tech missing
Introduction of latest technology has been limited due to a number of reasons. Access to modern technology could act as a boost to productivity through improved variety of seeds, farm implements and farming technology. According to a Niti Aayog paper, there has been no real technological breakthrough in recent times.
7. Fragmented supply chains
Large gaps in storage, cold chains and limited connectivity have added to the woes of farmers. It has also added to the significant post-harvest losses of fruit and vegetables, estimated at 4% to 16% of the total output, according to the OECD.
8. Lack of food processing clusters
This has meant that there is little incentives for farmers to diversify. According to an OECD document, share of high-value sectors in food processing is low with fruit, vegetable and meat products accounting for 5% and 8% of the total value of output compared to cerealbased products at 21% and oilseeds at 18%
9. Delayed FCI reforms
A government-appointed panel had recommended that FCI hand over all procurement operations of wheat, paddy and rice to states that have gained sufficient experience in this regard and have created reasonable infrastructure for procurement. These states are Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh. It had suggested a complete overhaul of FCI and recommended that farmers be given direct cash subsidy (of about Rs 7000/ha) and fertiliser sector deregulated. The panel had said direct cash subsidy to farmers will go a long way to help those who take loans from money lenders at exorbitant interest rates to buy fertilisers or other inputs, thus relieving some distress in the agrarian sector. The report has been put in cold storage.

Source: Timesofindia
Link:https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/10-reasons-why-farmers-are-in-distress/articleshow/67069814.cms

Onion retail price tracker: Thursday, December 12

The arrival of domestic produce and imported stock has cooled down onion prices, though the maximum retail price as recorded on the Department of Consumer Affairs website is unchanged at ₹160/kg on Thursday

The retail price of the bulb has moderated at many centres, but remains elevated at some

The fresh arrival of domestic produce and imported stock cooled down onion prices in different parts of the country, though the maximum retail price as recorded on the Department of Consumer Affairs website stayed unchanged at ₹160/kg on Thursday. The minimum price, however, rose to ₹50/kg from ₹40 on Wednesday, as the retail price in Jhansi climbed by ₹10/kg.

Intervention by State governments helped consumers get some respite from the high prices. In West Bengal, Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee ordered that the bulb be sold at ₹59/kg in fair price shops.

A notification by Puducherry’s Civil Supplies Department on Wednesday barring wholesale dealers from stocking more than 2.5 tonnes each of the bulb is expected to bring down prices in the Union Territory. The retail price of the bulb there was ₹90/kg on Thursday.

Onion prices continued to slide in Panaji, declining to ₹110/kg on Thursday from ₹140 on Wednesday. In Kerala, too, prices fell by ₹10-15/kg. From ₹160-165/kg earlier this week it has come down to ₹130/140. In comparison, prices in Jhansi and Kanpur increased by ₹10-20/kg.

Zone-wise data

In the North, onions were the most expensive in Meerut, at ₹120/kg, and most affordable in Jhansi, at ₹50/kg.

In the West, it was retailing at ₹120/kg in Ambikapur and Jagdalpur and at ₹50/kg in Jaipur, Udaipur, Sagar and Gwalior, all of which lie in the onion-growing belt.

In the East, onions were retailing at a high of ₹120/kg in Kolkata, Purulia and Raiganj, and at a low of ₹69/kg in Gaya.

In the South, the prices were the highest in Mayabunder (Andaman), at ₹160/kg, and the least in Hyderabad and Jadcherla, where it cost only ₹75/kg.

Source: Thehindubusinessline
Link: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/economy/onion-retail-price-tracker-thursday-december-12/article30286466.ece

Skill Development in Agriculture Sector

training

Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship is implementing its flagship scheme Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) through National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), a Public Private Partnership organization. The NSDC has facilitated creation of Sector Skill Councils (SSCs) that are industry led bodies to ensure addressing skill requirements of various sectors. The scheme promotes skilling of manpower in various sectors including agriculture through the Agriculture Sector Skill Council.

There are basically 3 kind of training routes under the scheme – Short term Training (STT) for fresh skilling of school / college drop outs and unemployed youth, Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) to recognize the existing skills and Special Projects to address skilling requirements of the vulnerable groups and permit flexibility in conduct of Short Term Training. RPL under PMKVY has been able to undertake up-skilling of farmers via bridge course training through some of the projects.

skill

The scheme is being implemented across the country spanning 37 sectors including agriculture sector. Under PMKVY2016-2020, as on 11 November 2019, over 5 lakh candidates have been trained in Agriculture sector. More than 300 candidates have been trained in Beekeeper Job role. In past three years, 67 training courses in Beekeeping & 60 training courses in Animal husbandry has been done by NSDC Training Provider. The beneficiaries have been oriented in skills such as ‘Group Farming Practitioner’ which enables farmers to increase productivity and income by establishing market linkages and buy – back arrangements. Beneficiaries are being enrolled pan India including for job roles such as Dairy Farmer, Organic Grower, Floriculturist, Gardener and Pulses Cultivator etc.

Minister of State for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship R.K. Singh gave this information in the Lok Sabha.

source: Krishi Jagran
Link:https://krishijagran.com/agriculture-world/skill-development-in-agriculture-sector/

Nadendla Manohar seeks support from farmers for Pawan Kalyan’s one-day hunger strike on December 12

Nadendla Manohar seeks support from farmers for Pawan Kalyan

Jana Sena senior leader Nadendla Manohar urged the people to support solidarity with the Jana Sena chief Pawan Kalyan’s one-day fast in Kakinada on December 12 seeking a solution to the problems faced by farmers in the state. He said in a statement that Jana Sena leaders, activists and sympathizers should come to Kakinada to support the party president.

“Chief Minister YS Jagan Mohan Reddy has failed to address the problems of the farmers of the two Godavari districts of who are deeply embarrassed by the YCP government and said that the farmers in the area are facing great difficulties,” Manohar said.

While visiting Pawan Kalyan’s paddy purchasing centres, he said that there were many irregularities. “RTC’s retired employee Sambi Reddy has died while standing in a queue to buy onions,” he added. The former Andhra Pradesh speaker alleged that the YCP government failed miserably in addressing the onion crisis.

Source: The HansIndia
Link:https://www.thehansindia.com/andhra-pradesh/nadendla-manohar-seeks-support-from-farmers-for-pawan-kalyans-one-day-hunger-strike-on-december-12-588652

Climate change behind spike in onion price every alternate year: Study

Researchers from Institute for Social and Economic Change say price will stabilise only by March 2020

The price of onion in the country spikes every two years and this is largely triggered by a series of factors, including drought, late arrival of monsoon, floods, crop failure, and supply disruptions, according to a recent study. The current sharp spike in onion price is expected to continue till at least March next year, the study says.

Onion rates have been ruling high for the past few weeks in the backdrop of crop failure in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, and delayed kharif harvest in Maharashtra owing to late sowing.

The problem was aggregated this year by the damage caused by floods in Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and parts of Karnataka, said the study titled ‘Price volatility and major causes in demand and supply management of onion in India’ (2019) by Manjunath A.V., Khalil Shaha and Maruthi I., faculty members of Institute for Social and Economic Change (ISEC), Bengaluru.

The study entrusted by the Union Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare noted that the country had witnessed spikes in onion price in 2013, 2015 and 2017, and now in 2019, almost every alternate year.

The area under onion cultivation has gone up from 0.25 million hectares in 1980-81 to 1.2 million hectares in 2017-18, while production has increased from 2.5 million tonnes to 21.4 million tones. Since onion undoubtedly assumed a significant portion in the food basket of Indian households due to its usage, the annual consumption increased to 18 million tonnes, an increase of 3% a year, said the study.

A significant proportion of production comes from Maharashtra, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal. The 10 States accounted for about 90.7% of total onion production and 88.7% of total area under onion.

A total of 34 districts across the country account for almost 52.11% of the all-India production. For example, three districts — namely Nasik, Pune and Ahmednagar — account for more than two-third of production and almost 60% of total area under onion cultivation in Maharashtra. Similarly, in Karnataka, the major onion-growing districts are Vijayapura, Bagalkot, Chitradurga, and Dharwad. The cultivation in U.P. and Bihar is quite diversified across the districts than those of other States.

The post-harvest losses of the crop range from 2% to 20%. “The storage quality of onion from the Rabi season is far better and there is higher shelf life due to dry days and low moisture in the soil. The produce can be stored for 4 to 6 months,” notes the study. The quality of produce in the Kharif is by and large poor due to high moisture content. Further, curing and drying of onion bulbs becomes difficult due to high moisture content, the study says.

Recommending several measures, the study favoured promotion of the crop in non-traditional areas of U.P. by facilitating technology, necessary infrastructure and extension, provision of buffer stocking to counter shortage in the peak months, and judicious use of price stabilisation fund to monitor and stabilise fluctuations in the onion price.

Implementation of market intervention schemes in the event of surplus production and proper implementation of APMC Act, with regular monitoring of market functionaries would solve the issue of shortage price hike.

Source: Thehindu
Link:https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/karnataka/climate-change-behind-spike-in-onion-price-every-alternate-year-study/article30232967.ece

Daily Onion Price Index – December 7, 2019

Onion prices continued to rise in many cities across the country, though the maximum recorded by government agencies on Saturday remained unchanged at Rs 165 a kilo. In Wayanad and Thiruvanthapuram, onion prices climbed Rs 5-10 a kilo from the Friday’s level.

Onions continued to be most affordable in Jhansi, but prices of the bulb shot up in Vijayawada. Here’s a look at the cities where onion prices were the highest and the lowest on Saturday, December 7.

Five cities where onion prices are highest on December 7, 2019

Five cities where onion prices are lowest on December 7, 2019

Source: The Hindubusinessline
Link:https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/economy/agri-business/daily-onion-price-index-december-7-2019/article30231282.ece

World Soil Day 2019: Current Theme, History and Key Facts

World Soil Day 2019: Current Theme, History and Key Facts

World Soil DayWorld Soil Day

World Soil Day also highlight the growing problem due to population expansion. Therefore, it is necessary to take a step to reduce the erosion of soil, to maintain fertility so that food safety can be ensured. 

Soil is made up of minerals, organic matter and air in different proportions. It is important for life as it provides the medium for the growth of a plant, habitat for several insects and other organisms. It also acts as a filtration system for surface water and in the maintenance of atmospheric gases. It is the source of four essential ‘living’ factors including food, clothes, shelter, and medicine. Therefore, conservation of soil is necessary. So, to raise awareness about soil loss, World Soil Day is celebrated on 5 December.

World Soil Day 2019: Theme

The theme of World Soil Day 2019 is “Stop Soil Erosion, Save our Future”. The theme focuses on the increasing challenges in soil management and raises the profile of healthy soil by encouraging organisations, governments, communities, and individuals around the world to work towards improving the soil health and its conservation.

World Soil Day: History

In 2002, the International Union of Soil Sciences recommended to celebrate World Soil Day annually on 5 December. Also, FAO supported the formal establishment of World Soil Day as a global awareness-raising platform under the leadership of the Kingdom of Thailand and within the framework of the Global Soil Partnership. The conference of FAO was unanimously endorsed World Soil Day in June 2013 and requested its official adoption at the 68th UN General Assembly. In December 2013, UN General Assembly at the 68th session declared 5 December as World Soil Day. The first World Soil Day was celebrated on 5 December, 2014.

Do you know why is 5 December chosen as World Soil Day?

Because this date corresponds the birthday of the late H.M. King Bhumibol Adulyadej, King of Thailand. He was one of the main proponents of this initiative.

What is Soil Conservation and its methods?

Soil conversation is the method to preserve soil. There are several reasons for the loss in soil fertility including over-use, erosion, salinisation and chemical contamination.

Soil erosion is when top soil is removed which is important for nutrients, micro-organisms that are necessary for plant growth and its shine. Let us tell you that soil conservation is one such step that protects the soil from being washed away. There are various ways to conserve the soil.

Techniques and methods to conserve soil are as follows:

  1. 1. Contour Ploughing: Instead of planting the crop, contour ploughing is done to get the desired farmland. It is done for farmland on slopes to prevent run off improve crop yields. Or to minimise the soil erosion, ploughing is done along the contours of the land.
  2. Terrace farming: It is a method of carving multiple, flat levelled areas into hills. It is done to prevent run off and hold the soil nutrients in the beds.
  3. Windbreaks: To prevent wind erosion, in this method trees are grown in dense patterns around the farmland.
  4. Crop Rotation: To make soil valuable in nutrients crop rotation technique is followed. Like turnips and radishes are rotated with cash crops to maintain the nutrient value of the soil.
  5. Agrostological Measures: In heavily eroded areas, grasses are planted and this technique is known as Agrostological Measures. It increases the nutrient level in the soils and when the grass is harvested it can be used as a fodder for cattle.
  6. No-till farming: Without changing the topography of the soil crops are grown all year round by tilling or contouring. This method increases the amount of water that penetrates the soil and can increase the organic matter of the soil which leads to larger yields.
  7. Green Manures: Green manures are grown to fertilise the farmland on which it grows. This technique can improve the structure of the soil and suppresses the growth of weeds.
  8. Salinity Management: When water evaporates from the soil, salt is left and can lead to damage to the soil and nutrient loss. Humic acids are used to prevent this. And saltbush is also grown to rejuvenate the soils and replace the loss of the nutrients.
  9. Earthworms: Earthworms have great benefits of farm land as they burrow under the ground and provide more area for water to rest. The excreta of the earthworms in the soil provide nutrients to the crops. They also help to prevent soil erosion and will lead to larger crop yields.

Therefore, World Soil Day is celebrated on 5 December annually to raise awareness about the importance of soil in our lives.

Source:Jagranjosh
Link:https://www.jagranjosh.com/general-knowledge/world-soil-day-1575371339-1