There are a variety of beneficial soil microorganisms in nature that can assist plants in absorbing nutrients. Human intervention can increase their utility by selecting efficient organisms, cultivating them, and adding them to soils directly or through seeds. Bio-fertilizers culture microorganisms and pack them in a carrier material for easy field application. Consequently, microorganisms play a crucial role in biofertilizers

Biofertilizers contain living microorganisms that, when applied to soil, colonise the rhizosphere or the interior of the plant and promote growth by increasing the availability of primary nutrients to the host plant. Biofertilizers contain living or dormant cells of efficient strains of microorganisms. They are eco-friendly. These are also known as “Live fertilisers” and are most commonly used in Organic Farming/Agriculture for nutrient availability. It increases crop yield by 20-30%, replaces chemical nitrogen and phosphorus by 30%, and stimulates plant growth. It can also protect against drought and some soil-borne diseases.

Biofertilizers are now the most innovative solution for improving soil health and fertility.

These are substances that contain a variety of microbes capable of increasing plant nutrient uptake by colonising the rhizosphere and making nutrients easily accessible to plant root hairs. Biofertilizers gain recognition due to their low cost, environmentally friendly nature, and composition. These are viable alternatives to the potentially hazardous synthetic/chemical fertilisers.

The importance of using Biofertilizers:

To restore soil fertility, biofertilizers are required. The use of chemical fertilisers for an extended period degrades soil living organisms, soil pH, organic carbon, and crop yield. Biofertilizers, on the other hand, increase the soil’s water retention capacity and add essential nutrients such as nitrogen, vitamins, and proteins. They are the most common type of fertiliser because they are natural.

The purpose of biofertilizers is to make agriculture more sustainable and efficient. These products contain organic matter, thus adhering to the principle of avoiding synthetic and chemical additives to improve farming methods. Biofertilizers use microorganisms and materials to stimulate natural soil processes. These processes influence plant growth and development. 

As a result, biofertilizers boost plant growth. 

In contrast, fertiliser directly contributes to crop growth by providing additional nutrients to the soil or plants. Meanwhile, bio-fertilizers use soil microbes to improve plant nutrients. Different microorganisms have different effects on plant growth. Biofertilizers containing nitrogen-fixing bacteria, for example, affect growth by activating the nitrogen cycle. Plants, in general, require nitrogen for optimal growth and development. 

As a result, increasing the abundance of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in a plant’s rhizosphere will result in better plant growth conditions.

Advantages of Biofertilizers

Bio-fertilizers, which derive from bacteria, fungi, and algae, exhibit different modes of action and can be used either individually or in combination

  • Biofertilizers fix atmospheric nitrogen in legume crop soil and root nodules and make it available to the plant.
  • Phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms transform insoluble phosphates, including tricalcium, iron, and aluminium phosphates, into soluble forms.
  • These microorganisms extract phosphate from soil layers.
  • They also synthesize hormones and anti-metabolites that enhance root development.
  • Additionally, they play a crucial role in decomposing organic matter and facilitating soil mineralization.
  • When applied to seed or soil, biofertilizers increase nutrient availability and yield by 10 to 25% without negatively impacting the soil or environment.

Disadvantages of using biofertilizers

  • Biofertilizers are not a replacement for chemical fertilisers; rather, they are a supplement.
  • Crop yields are increased by 20–30% due to biofertilizers. They do not materially boost chemical fertilisers’ productivity.
  • Specific fertilisers are needed for certain crops. To symbiotic microorganisms, this is more relevant. The crop yield won’t increase if non-specific rhizobium is used as fertiliser because it won’t cause root nodulation.
  • Microbes are killed by prolonged exposure to sunlight because they are light-sensitive.
  • When storing microbial fertilizer, use it within six months at room temperature and after two years when kept cooler.

How to Get a Good Reaction to Biofertilizer Application?

  • Biofertilizer products must contain a good effective strain in an appropriate population and be free of contaminating microorganisms.
  • Choose the right combination of biofertilizers and use them before the expiration date.
  • Use the recommended method of application and apply at the appropriate time as specified on the label.
  • For optimal results in seed treatment, use adequate adhesive
  • Corrective methods for problematic soils include seed pelleting with lime or gypsum or adjusting soil pH with lime.
  • Ensure a steady supply of phosphorus and other nutrients.

Also Read:- Why is Greenhouse Farming Beneficial and what does it Entail?


In conclusion, biofertilizers play a crucial role in sustainable agriculture. They not only improve soil health and increase crop yields but also protect the environment. With the increasing demand for food, it is essential to promote the use of biofertilizers and educate farmers about their benefits. Governments and organizations should also provide support and incentives to farmers to adopt this eco-friendly approach to farming. By incorporating biofertilizers into our agricultural practices, we can ensure a sustainable future for generations to come.

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